Minggu, 28 Juli 2013

Islamic Entrepreneurship Education : Actualization of The Prophet’s Entrepreneurship in The Pillar of Education on Islamic Organizations

No. Peserta: 009AB/
PCIM RUSIA 2013 - International Article 

Islamic Entrepreneurship Education : Actualization of The Prophet’s Entrepreneurship in The Pillar of Education on Islamic Organizations

Islam as the religion which is full of grace or it is well-known as rahmatan lilalamin, will lead the mankind to the gate of happiness in the world and in the afterlife. It is proved by the role of Islam in developing mankind civilization which is well-mannered, knowledgeable, and independent, which was started by the struggle of the Prophet. From day by day, Islam has been facing degradation and underdeveloped situation in many aspects because of the development of western countries. Poverty and unemployment are the most obvious things which can be seen in all over the world with the majority of Moslems. Based on the report of ILO Global Employment Trends 2012, the number of unemployment in the countries which belong to OKI  is 9,4%,  beyond the average of world’s employment which is 6,8%, and developed countries which is 6,3%. Besides, not less than 27,2% of Moslems in all over the world (352 million Moslems) have income under  USD 1,25/day/capita, or about IDR 12.125/day/capita. Almost 10% of the percentage is in Indonesia.

Indonesia, as the biggest Muslim country shows high rate of poverty and unemployment.  Based on the source of Biro Pusat Statistik (BPS) and the World Bank’s data, Indonesia is one of Muslim countries, which is impoverished. The data of BPS reveal the number of indigent people Indonesia in 2012 is 29,88 million people. While the data coming from the World Bank reveal more number which is 102,45 million people. (VOA, 02/03/2013).

The difference of number occurs because the World Bank has more high indicators than the BPS does. However, the number is still high and it causes negative impact which is the increase of criminal rate, beggar and unemployment, this situation later will cause the circle of poverty. And then, the data of unemployment based on educational indicator in BPS reveal high number, 6,32% out of the total number of Indonesian people. This data of unemployment are quite high. This situation needs to be handled intensively and seriously, because it involves a number of people’s welfare. The complete data as follow:

Tabel 1. The level of open unemployment of citizen in age of 15 and above based on the highest education achieved in 2010 to 2012 (%)
Education Level
Elementary and below
Junior High School
Senior High School
Vocational School
Diploma I/II/III
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2012

Although the data of poverty and unemployment decrease, however the number is still high and the phase of decrease is too slow, therefore this situation has to be reduced especially in young unemployment. Many ways have been done by the government, private sectors, or even the people themselves. As we know, to solve this problem takes time and long process. Socio-economic problem is still happening in Muslim countries, including Indonesia. According to Azyumardi Azra, an intellectual Muslim, those two problems are able to influence people’s religion in activity and faith. (Replubika, 23/11/2012)

The solution which has been developed by the government to solve unemployment is developing new entrepreneur in Indonesia. It is also in line with the recent international study about the role of entrepreneurship as the motor of economy. Zahra (1999:39)  argues that the development of entrepreneurship has been considered as one of main factors to develop socio-economy sector because it opens million job opportunities, offers varied goods and services, and generally increases national welfare and competitiveness.

Based on the data of State Minister for Cooperatives Small and Medium Enterprises 2012, out of more than 230 million people in Indonesia, only 1,56% becomes entrepreneur. Ideally, there should be 2% of entrepreneur out of the total number of people in a country. The percentage of entrepreneur in Indonesia is low, even it is not the ideal percentage, whereas, in developed countries such as America, Singapore, and England the percentage of entrepreneur is above 10% out of the total number of people. The entrepreneurs become the motor of economy, which are creative, innovative, and brave to take risks. An entrepreneur will optimize every source to be a valuable product.

Indonesia will be The Next Emerging Country with strong economics in the future. Based on IMF Standard Chartered Research 2010, Indonesia’s economics pojection PDB/capita in 2020 will be in the top 10 along with 3,2 trn USD and in 2030 will be in the top 5 along with 9,3 trn USD with China, US, India and Brazil. Because of the increase of PDB, the role of Indonesia also increases in international affairs and contributes to solve global economy crisis. Other potentials of Indonesia are abundant natural resources, human resources and stability of economics and then the number of young generation in the age 14-20 is the most, 64 million people. The demography can be used beneficially as the right time to grow.

Therefore, a strategic way is needed to establish human resources which are independent by having entrepreneurial the Prophet’s character which will enhance quality of natural resources in Indonesia well. Based on the explanations above, the writer is interested in the study of “Islamic Entrepreneurship Education (I’m Edu Program): Actualization of the Prophet’s Entrepreneurship as the Pillar of Education on Islamic Organizations towards Indonesia as the Emerging Country.

Islamic and Entrepreneurship
Islam categorizes entrepreneurship and trade into mu’amalah meaning that the issues are related to horizontal relationship among humans which will be responsibly adjudicated in the afterlife. Mankind is mandated to prosper the earth and lead it to the right directions also to strive in earning and making a living. The Holy Qur’an cited the entrepreneurial spirit in the verses as follow:

QS.Al-Mulk:15, meaning:
“He it is Who has made the earth subservient to you (i.e. easy for you to walk, to live and to do agriculture on it); so walk in the path thereof and eat of His provision. And to Him will be the Resurrection.
QS. Al-Baqarah: 275 meaning:
 “… is only like Ribâ (usury), whereas Allâh has permitted trading and forbidden Ribâ (usury).”

Islam encourages its people to be an entrepreneur. There are a number of verses or hadiths which encourage Muslims to be an entrepreneur, such as the importance of trading which is stated in a hadith: Beheld trading by all of, in trading there 9 out of 10 doors that will lead to the welfare.(HR. Ahmad). And then, the Prophet had ever been asked by his followers: ”What is the best occupation?”He answered“a people works with his hand in trading and honest.”(HR. Al Bazzar). Therefore, “..Then when the (Jumu’ah) Salât (prayer) is ended, you may disperse through the land, and seek the Bounty of Allâh (by working, etc.), and remember Allâh much: that you may be successful. (QS. al-Jumu’ah: 10).

The concept of entrepreneur had been taught by the Prophet, long time ago before he became the Prophet. The Prophet started his business when he was 12 years old by buying goods from the market and selling them to other people in order to get profits. Together with his uncle, the Prophet had a business trip to Syria. His business had been growing fast until he met Khadijah a offered a partnership by employing profit sharing system. During the partnership, the Prophet had a business trip to the center of business in Hbasyah, Syria, and Jorash. (Ermawati, 2006:164)

Antonio (2007:80)  in his book presents the analogy of studies and inspirations and activities of guarding sheep towards elements of management as follow: 1. Pathfinding meaning looking for fertile meadow, 2. Directing looking for fertile meadow, 3. Controlling meaning to control the sheep, thus they will not be lost or separate from their flocks, 4. Protecting to protect the sheep from beast animals  and thieves, 5. Reflecting to reflect and contemplate among nature, mankind, and God. And then, Trim (2009) claims that credibility and capability of the Prophet exist in four important characters known as FAST (Fathonah, Amanah, Shiddiq and Tabligh) perfected by istiqamah of the Prophet supported by Roziah Sidik who states that the Prophet was a genius proved by his ability as a politician, a war expert, a diplomat, a government, a genius, a citizen planner, and a preacher.

The development history of Islam in all over the world is also influenced by trading which makes the invasion of Islam becomes stronger and beneficial. Many versions of history state that Islam had been brought to Indonesia through trades from Gujarati and Arabian traders. Next, one of the founders of the biggest Islamic organization in Indonesia is KH. Ahmad Dahlan as the enlightenment and the founder of Muhammdiyah also employed trades in strengthening the activities. KH. Ahmad Dahlan not only developing his business but also became a teacher who taught how to read the Holy Qur’an and he was also a khatib, an Islamic preacher. On trading he visited many towns in Indonesia. In each of his trip he always conveyed the mission of Islamic values. (Een Rochahen, 2011:1)

Based on the explanations above, it is obvious that education of Islamic entrepreneurship has to be explored and enhanced as the way to enhance the continuous productivity of people’s economics. Islamic entrepreneurship had been epitomized actually by the Prophet, which has been spread well to all over the world by the traders, thus now it exists in Indonesia and this was also supported by founder of the biggest Islamic organization.

The Pillar of Education on Islamic Organizations and Entrepreneurship Education
Indonesia’s the largest Muslim country, has many Islamic organizations that have branches pgrosesif and proselytizing movement from national to district and village level Such as Muhammadiyah, NU, MUI, Persis, and others. This potential can be developed as a medium for the propagation of Islamic faith, morals and independence of the people in the context of Islamic economics to reduce poverty in Indonesia. Islamic entrepreneurship education is the solution for creating entrepreneur that will create jobs and improving the welfare of the Ummah. In this model were emphasized to establish an entrepreneurial Muslims because as a consequence of the role of entrepreneurs in the development of people and the economic motor of the country based on Islamic sharia fit that has been demonstrated by the prophet Muhammad. It is in because of the number of entrepreneurs in Indonesia are still few and of those few be reduced by a greedy entrepreneur.

As a good role model on Islamic education is of Mumammdiyah. where the education here is very inspired of the founders of Muhammadiyah by its founder, KH. Ahmad Dahlan and his objectives. The objectives of Islamic Organisations are to spread the lesson of the Prophet through educational institutions (from elementary to university), to held meetings, religious gatherings,to establish religious contribution, to build mosques, and to published books, brochures, newspapers, and magazines. Special characteristic of Islamic Organizations is Islamic identity. Educational base of Islamic Organizations is Islam which is based on the Holy Qur’an and  the Prophet’s As-Sunnah and the goal of to create Muslim mankind.

Educational system in Islamic Organizations can be seen from Data Amal Usaha Islamic Organizations 2012 from the web of Muhammdiyah which established and run, 4.623 playgroup/Qur’an-based playgroup, 2.604 Elementary School, 1.772 Junior High School, 1.143 Senior High School, 67 religious boarding school, 172 university dan 6.118 mosques. The educational system has great potential to create independent young generation that contributes to the number of educated unemployment in Indonesia. Thus, seriousness and entrepreneurial education form are needed in Islamic Organizations which can improve the way of thinking, creativity, and entrepreneurship among young generations.

Entrepreneurial education is the way to enhance students’ potential to be creative and able to notice any
opportunities and able to value economical resources around their surroundings to be more valuable things. Positive characters in entrepreneurial education will improve young generation’s potential and independence in Indonesia. Entrepreneurial education is in line with the objectives of National Education System number 20, 2003 which is based on Pancasila and Basic Constitution of Indonesia that state to develop students’ potential to be faithful and pious mankind who believes in God, good characters, healthy, educated, creative, independent and responsible.

Islamic Entrepreneurship Education (I’M EDU PROGRAM) :  Actualization  of The Prophet’s Entrepreneurship  in The  Pillar of  Islamic Education
A. Model
Indonesia of Islamic Entrepreneurship Education shortened I’m Edu Program is actualization of the Prophet’s entrepreneurship in the pillar of education on Islamic Organizations both formal education and non-formal education. Entrepreneurship education is really important to be taught because it will create creative and independent mankind. This Islamic entrepreneurship education is an integrated way from elementary to university with different objectives and learning plans.

Tabel 2. Entrepreneurship Education Program in Formal Education Level of Islamic Organizations
Education Level
Learning Activities
Learning outcome
Elementary Handicrafts, extracurricular Being competent to be creative and honest
Junior High School Learning subjects, Handicrafts, extracurricular: Students’ Cooperation Being competent to be creative, confident, and trustworthy.
Senior High School Learning subjects, local subject, extracurricularr, reading of the Holy Qur’an, Islamic entrepreneurship. Being competent to be creative, have entrepreneurial knowledge and to be brave to establish small enterprises guilelessly.
University Subjects, Islamic Students’ Activities and Business which is in line with DIKTI program. Being competent to be creative, innovative, brave to take risks and to start establishing enterprises which based on syariah or Islamic-based.
Source: a number of sources from the writer

Practical and implement entrepreneurship education in education system of Islamic Organizations is given in senior high school, university and Mosque Youth in the Islamic Organizations’ in Indonesia. Entrepreneurship education program for Islamic Organizations’ youth in senior high school level, university students, and mosque youth is started by Economic Council of Islamic Organizations and its educational section to activate the academicians in universities to optimize tri dharma of universities in education and citizen productivity by focusing on Islamic entrepreneurship. This academy will contribute to senior high school students and university students by giving knowledge of business which is based on Islamic rules according to the Prophet, development of business plan, training of entrepreneurial management, evaluation and development strategy.
In the implementation phase of Islamic Organizations’ youth entrepreneurship, their enterprises will be categorized into 5 people with different background. In this phase they will be guided directly by Islamic businessmen who have been successful and they are given a chance to join internship in real business based on their interest.

After finishing the internship they will be guided to develop business plan based on local potential and technology. In some business categories wakaf land including productive wakaf agreement which are owned by Amal Usaha Islamic Organizations can be optimized as a land to be cultivated as agribusiness and the products will be produced and sold in modern markets with technology system.
The government’s supports can be done by having check-balance program from the institution and giving credits known as KUR (Kredit Usaha Rakyat). And then the Muslim businessmen who have been successful can give Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in order to develop productive young generation in Islamic entrepreneurship education.

B. Implementation
The implementation program of  “I’m Edu” can be established by referring to the vision of education and economics based on Islamic Organizations is crystallizing the local potential and technology for Islamic entrepreneurship education in the pillar of education in Islamic Organizations. The implementations as follow:
  1. Forging Islamic Entrepreneurship Education based on local potential in the level of education in Islamic Organizations from elementary, junior high school, senior high school, to university and community of Islamic Organizations.
  2. Identifying local potential in the area in which Islamic Organizations exists and it will be included into entrepreneurship education curriculum.
  3. Training for Mentor addressed to teachers, lecturers, and Islamic figures who become the head of majelis ta’lim or religious council, which will be the main point of entrepreneurship education and it also should include practical learning by Islamic businessmen.
  4. Implementing entrepreneurship education in the learning subjects, extracurricular of Islamic entrepreneurship in senior high school and subjects in university and also Islamic Students’ Activities in university. Output program is creative entrepreneurs based on local wisdom and islamic value.
  5. Religious gathering of entrepreneurship is started in mosques of Islamic Organizations.
  6. Training and implementing integrated program of “I’am Edu Program” for students, college students, community of religious youth in developing business plan, business management and practice of enterprises.
  7. Evaluating and developing Islamic Entrepreneurship Education.

In the model solution in this paper will focus on the entrepreneurship education In Islamic Organization to ummah empowernment. Implementation is supported by entrepreneurship education trough optimization of zakat, waqf and shodakoh for empowering the ummah in the alleviation of poverty. Zakat as an instrument of distribution of welfare is a significant instrument for the fulfillment of basic needs of the poor coreligionists Chairman of the National Board of Amil Zakat, Zakat Didin Hafidhuddin mention the potential national reach Rp. 213, 7 billion each year if calculated from the occupation of Indonesia reached 250 million. collected only 10% of 2.2 trillion not to mention the potential shodakoh as an instrument of distribution of welfare in Islam. Then the potential of waqf as instrumentation for the economic empowerment of the ummah In Indonesia.

Data waqf land Indonesia in 2011 reached 426 003 locations with an area 3,492,045,373,754 square meters or 349,204,537 acres. And has certified 282,321 locations and 132,396 locations not yet certified. Thus, the land is still widely neglected. Then the potential endowments tunia (productive) Ministry of Religious Affairs in 2007, never assume if 40 Million Muslim waqf pay Rp 100,000.00 per year, it will be collected the money from endowments amounting to Rp 400 billion. If payment is increased to Rp 500,000.00 per year, the amount of funds that will be collected sebeasr Rp 20 trillion. If the results of Islamic banks around 10 percent, the value of the results that can be received from the investment fund endowments is about 2 Billion/year. Number is only estimated 40 million Muslim population of about 182 million Muslims in Indonesia. It can be optimized Endowments economic assets that can be developed for productive business media based on Islam who later cooperation with BMT and Islamic banks to be SMEs for the poor and unemployed.

C. Outcome Program
“I’m Edu” Program is a continuous model of Islamic entrepreneurship education, thus it can increase the number of youth who become a businessman and decrease the number of educated unemployment and young generations in society:
  1. The program is designed by using triple heilx approach which integrates between Muslim businessmen and government together to build competence of young entrepreneurship in university and society.
  2. Produce competent young Islamic entrepreneurship that can be independently and positively impact on the economic empowerment of the people based on the nature of the FAST Prophet Muhammad.
  3. The program combines both Islamic entrepreneurship and technology which are based on local potential designed by exploring local finance and local strength existing in society.
  4. The program is not only business-oriented, but also it is skills-oriented meaning that it trains students, college students, youth to have soft-skills, therefore if they choose not to establish their own enterprise, they have got enough self-development training.

Poverty and unemployment are the crucial problems that have to be reduced as soon as possible. Educated unemployment becomes the focus of the weak point of national independence. The Prophet’s entrepreneurship education in school, university, and mosque of Islamic Organizations is one of the solutions to create Muslim young generations who are creative, independent, sensitive to their surroundings and  useful for other people by having strong foundation of FAST (Fathonah, Amanah, Shiddiq dan Tabligh). Young generations of Islamic Organizations will be the ambassador  independence in Indonesia and support Indonesia to be The Next Emerging Country.

1)      The program of entrepreneurship education will be successful if the stakeholders in triple helix; Muslim academicians, goverment and businessmen together teach Islamic entrepreneurship holistically and establish business incubator and BMT in each mosque In Indonesia.
2)      The need for synergy governments and Islamic organizations in Indonesia to jointly develop the independence of the people, reduce poverty and unemployment in the form of a joint program of sustainable in Islamic entrepreneurship education. Government support in the form of regulations, facilities and programs.
3)      Good support from Indonesian government in seeking shodakoh, waqf, infaq collection and more optimal funding trough channeled Islamic organization in Indonesia which has a branch officials to the village level in the form of productive empowerment programs.

This model of Islamic entrepreneurship education can be a suggestion for the government to implement integrated and holistic entrepreneurship education starting from education level to reach the objectives of National Education. For international level, this model can be transferred technology from developed countries and from Muslim intellectuals who live overseas to accelerate new development of technology-based entrepreneurship. This model can Implement Islamic organization based on the education and empowerment of the people in his preaching that exist elsewhere as the row so that the model of this paper make trikle down effect for Muslims in Indonesia especially and International.

Al-Qur’an and Al Hadits
Antonio, Syafi’i. 2007. Muhammad saw: The Super Leader Super Manager. Jakarta: ProLM.
Badan Pusat Statistik. 2012. Data Pengangguran di Indonesia Berdasarkan Tingkat Pendidikan
Een Rochaeni.2011. Esai Film Sang Pencerah “Kehidupan Dan Kepribadian Kh Ahmad Dahlan Yang Mencerahkan”. Suara Muhammadiyah 05 / 96 | 1 – 15 Maret 2011. Di akses pada 16 Maret 2013.
ILO.2012. Data Report of ILO Global Employment Trends 2012
Kemenag.2011. Data Wakaf di Indonesia dan Potensinya
Trim, bambang. 2009. Briliant Enterpreneur Muhammad saw. Bandung: Salamadani.
Zahra, S.A. (1999). The changing rules of global competitiveness in the 21st century. Academy of Management Executive, 13(1), 36–42.

Internet :
Ermawati, tuti. n.d. Kewirausahaan dalam Islam. Pustaka LIPI E-Library di akses pada 17/03/2013
Muhammadiyah. 2013. Data Amal Usaha pada Halaman Web Muhammdiyah
VOA. 2013. Indonesia, Salah Satu dari 5 Negara Muslim Termiskin di Dunia di akses pada 17/03/2013

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